Page last updated on January 31, 2014

Introduction:
Background:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the United States in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Demonstrations in 2010 culminated with clashes between security forces and pro-THAKSIN protesters, elements of which were armed, and resulted in at least 92 deaths and an estimated $1.5 billion in arson-related property losses. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. YINGLAK's leadership was almost immediately challenged by historic flooding in late 2011 that had large swathes of the country underwater and threatened to inundate Bangkok itself. Throughout 2012 the Puea Thai-led government struggled with the opposition Democrat Party to fulfill some of its main election promises, including constitutional reform and political reconciliation. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in Thailand's southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces.
Geography:
Location:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
Geographic coordinates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
15 00 N, 100 00 E
Map references:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Southeast Asia
Area:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 513,120 sq km
country comparison to the world: 51
land: 510,890 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km
Area - comparative:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 4,863 km
border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km
Coastline:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3,219 km
Maritime claims:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Elevation extremes:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
Natural resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Land use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
arable land: 30.71%
permanent crops: 8.77%
other: 60.52% (2011)
Irrigated land:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
64,150 sq km (2007)
Total renewable water resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
438.6 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 57.31 cu km/yr (5%/5%/90%)
per capita: 845.3 cu m/yr (2007)
Natural hazards:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
Environment - current issues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Environment - international agreements:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore
People and Society:
Nationality:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai
Ethnic groups:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%
Languages:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects
Religions:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Buddhist (official) 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other 0.1% (2000 census)
Population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
67,497,151 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,620,873/female 6,313,188)
15-24 years: 15.1% (male 5,181,468/female 4,975,083)
25-54 years: 45.6% (male 15,192,334/female 15,569,761)
55-64 years: 10.4% (male 3,345,493/female 3,661,867)
65 years and over: 9.8% (male 2,971,426/female 3,616,627) (2013 est.)
population pyramid: "> Dependency ratios:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total dependency ratio: 38.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 25.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 13.5 %
potential support ratio: 7.4 (2013)
Median age:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 35.1 years
male: 34.2 years
female: 36.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.52% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Birth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
12.66 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Death rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.47 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Net migration rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Urbanization:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
urban population: 34.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
BANGKOK (capital) 6.902 million (2009)
Sex ratio:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
23
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (1987 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
48 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 111
Infant mortality rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 15.41 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 107
male: 16.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total population: 74.05 years
country comparison to the world: 115
male: 71.66 years
female: 76.58 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.66 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
79.6% (2009)
Health expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4.1% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 163
Physicians density:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
improved:
unimproved:
Sanitation facility access:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
improved:
unimproved:
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
530,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
28,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Major infectious diseases:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
8.8% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 135
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 76
Education expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3.8% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 119
Literacy:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.5%
male: 95.6%
female: 91.5% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2009)
Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total number: 818,399
percentage: 8 % (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 2.8%
country comparison to the world: 144
male: 2.5%
female: 3.1% (2012)
Government:
Country name:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand
local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form: Prathet Thai
former: Siam
Government type:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
name: Bangkok
geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
77 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
National holiday:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Birthday of King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL), 5 December (1927)
Constitution:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
many previous; latest approved by referendum 19 August 2007, effective 24 August 2007 (2013)
Legal system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
civil law system with common law influences
International law organization participation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946)
head of government: Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat also spelled YINGLUCK Shinawatra (since 8 August 2011); Deputy Prime Minister KITTIRAT Na Ranong (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister PHONGTHEP Therkanchana also spelled PHONGTHEP Thepkanchana (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister PLODPRASOP Suraswadi (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister PRACHA Promnok (since 24 March 2013); Deputy Prime Minister SURAPHONG Towijakchaikun also spelled SURAPONG Tovichakchaikul (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister YUKHON Limiaemthong (since 25 March 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
note: there is also a Privy Council advising the king
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; according to the 2007 constitution, the prime minister is elected from among members of the House of Representatives; following national elections for the House of Representatives, the leader of the party positioned to organize a majority coalition usually becomes prime minister by appointment by the king; the prime minister is limited to two four-year terms
Legislative branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consisted of the Senate or Wuthisapha (150 seats; 77 members elected by popular vote representing 77 provinces, 73 appointed by judges and independent government bodies; members serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon (500 seats; 375 members elected from 375 single-seat constituencies and 125 elected on proportional party-list basis; members serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 2 March 2008 (next to be held in March 2014); House of Representatives - last election held on 3 July 2011 (next to be held by July 2015)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PTP 265, DP 159, PJT 34, CTP 19, others 23
note: 74 senators were appointed on 19 February 2008 by a seven-member committee headed by the chief of the Constitutional Court; 76 senators were elected on 2 March 2008; elections to the Senate are non-partisan; registered political party members are disqualified from being senators
Judicial branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president, 6 vice-presidents, and NA judges and organized into civil and criminal divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (the number of judges determined by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judges' terms NA; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch to serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts
Political parties and leaders:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Chat Pattana Party or CPN (Nation Development Party [WANNARAT Channukul]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Multicolor Group
International organization participation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of mission: Ambassador WICHAWAT Isarabak (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY (since 10 January 2011)
embassy: 120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] (2) 205-4000
FAX: [66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
Flag description:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life; white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism; blue stands for the monarchy
note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed
National symbol(s):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure); elephant
National anthem:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand)
lyrics/music: Luang SARANUPRAPAN/Phra JENDURIYANG
note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sansasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
Economy:
Economy - overview:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, generally pro-investment policies, and strong export industries, Thailand achieved steady growth due largely to industrial and agriculture exports - mostly electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. Thailand is trying to maintain growth by encouraging domestic consumption and public investment to offset weak exports in 2012. Unemployment, at less than 1% of the labor force, stands as one of the lowest levels in the world, which puts upward pressure on wages in some industries. Thailand also attracts nearly 2.5 million migrant workers from neighboring countries. The Thai government is implementing a nation-wide 300 baht ($10) per day minimum wage policy and deploying new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. The Thai economy has weathered internal and external economic shocks in recent years. The global economic crisis severely cut Thailand's exports, with most sectors experiencing double-digit drops. In 2009, the economy contracted 2.3%. However, in 2010, Thailand's economy expanded 7.8%, its fastest pace since 1995, as exports rebounded. In late 2011 growth was interrupted by historic flooding in the industrial areas in Bangkok and its five surrounding provinces, crippling the manufacturing sector. Industry recovered from the second quarter of 2012 onward with GDP growth at 5.5% in 2012. The government has approved flood mitigation projects worth $11.7 billion, which were started in 2012, to prevent similar economic damage, and an additional $75 billion for infrastructure over the next seven years with a plan to start in 2013.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$645.2 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$361 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
6.5% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$9,500 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
30.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
GDP - composition, by end use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
household consumption: 55.3%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 28.5%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 75%
imports of goods and services: -73.8%
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
agriculture: 12.3%
industry: 43.6%
services: 44.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
rice, cassava (manioc), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans
Industries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Industrial production growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Labor force:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
39.41 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Labor force - by occupation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
agriculture: 38.2%
industry: 13.6%
services: 48.2% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.7% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Population below poverty line:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.8% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
53.6 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 12
Budget:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
revenues: $72.08 billion
expenditures: $88.08 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
20% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-4.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Public debt:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
45.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Fiscal year:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Central bank discount rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2.75% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.1% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Stock of narrow money:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$52.18 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Stock of broad money:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$488.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Stock of domestic credit:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$245 billion (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 32
Current account balance:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$2.759 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$226.1 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Exports - commodities:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
electronics, computer parts, automobiles and parts, electrical appliances, machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber
Exports - partners:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
China 11.7%, Japan 10.2%, US 9.9%, Hong Kong 5.7%, Malaysia 5.4%, Indonesia 4.9%, Singapore 4.7%, Australia 4.3% (2012)
Imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$217.8 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Imports - commodities:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels
Imports - partners:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Japan 20%, China 14.9%, UAE 6.3%, Malaysia 5.3%, US 5.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$181.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Debt - external:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$133.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$185.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$56.14 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Exchange rates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
baht per US dollar -
Energy:
Electricity - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
173.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Electricity - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
169.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Electricity - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.535 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Electricity - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
9.575 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
32.6 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
89% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
10.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Crude oil - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
433,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Crude oil - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
32,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Crude oil - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
793,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Crude oil - proved reserves:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
453.3 million bbl (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 51
Refined petroleum products - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
913,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
721,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Refined petroleum products - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
192,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Refined petroleum products - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
41,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
Natural gas - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
36.99 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Natural gas - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
45.08 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Natural gas - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Natural gas - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
9.58 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
284.9 billion cu m (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 40
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
269.6 million Mt (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
Communications:
Telephones - main lines in use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
6.391 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 26
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
84.075 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 17
Telephone system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok
domestic: fixed line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly
international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the networks are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2008)
Internet country code:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
.th
Internet hosts:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3.399 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 31
Internet users:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
17.483 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 23
Transportation:
Airports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
101 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 56
Airports - with paved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 63
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 38
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m:
Heliports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7 (2013)
Pipelines:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
condensate 2 km; gas 5,900 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1 km; refined products 1,097 km (2013)
Railways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 4,071 km
country comparison to the world: 42
standard gauge: 29 km 1.435-m gauge (29 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 4,042 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)
country comparison to the world: 28
Waterways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 26
Merchant marine:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 363
country comparison to the world: 28
by type: bulk carrier 31, cargo 99, chemical tanker 28, container 18, liquefied gas 36, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 13 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, Malaysia 3, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UK 6)
registered in other countries: 46 (Bahamas 4, Belize 1, Honduras 2, Panama 6, Singapore 33) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
major seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
container port(s) TEUs): Bangkok (1,305,229), Laem Chabang (5,731,063)
Military:
Military branches:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
males age 16-49: 17,689,921
females age 16-49: 17,754,795 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
males age 16-49: 13,308,372
females age 16-49: 14,182,567 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
male: 533,424
female: 509,780 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.47% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 176
Transnational Issues:
Disputes - international:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; 140,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
refugees (country of origin): 83,317 (Burma) (2012)
IDPs: undetermined (resurgence in ethno-nationalist violence in south of country since 2004) (2011)
stateless persons: 506,197 (2012); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving
Trafficking in persons:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
current situation: Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, who are most often from neighboring countries, especially Burma, and also China, Vietnam, Russia, Uzbekistan, and Fiji, migrate to Thailand in search of economic opportunities but are forced, coerced, or defrauded into labor or commercial sexual exploitation; forced laborers are exploited in fishing, low-end garment production, domestic service, and some are forced to beg; some men forced to work on fishing boats have reportedly been kept at sea for years; sex trafficking of Thai and migrant children and sex tourism remain significant problems; Thailand is a transit country for victims from North Korea, China, Vietnam, Pakistan, and Burma destined for exploitation in third countries, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Russia, the Republic of Korea, the US, and Western European countries
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government investigated more trafficking-related cases but prosecuted and convicted fewer trafficking offender in 2012 than it did in the previous year; widespread corruption among law enforcement personnel creates an enabling environment for human trafficking; local authorities lack an awareness of the elements of trafficking and are deficient at identifying and protecting victims; weak law enforcement, inadequate human and financial resources, and fragmented coordination among regulatory agencies in the fishing industry contributes to overall impunity for exploitive labor practices in this sector; no labor recruitment companies have been punished for forced labor or trafficking allegations (2013)