Page last updated on January 28, 2014

Introduction:
Background:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
Geography:
Location:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
11 00 N, 61 00 W
Map references:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 5,128 sq km
country comparison to the world: 174
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 km
Coastline:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
362 km
Maritime claims:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Natural resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
arable land: 4.87%
permanent crops: 4.29%
other: 90.84% (2011)
Irrigated land:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
36 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3.84 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 0.23 cu km/yr (67%/25%/8%)
per capita: 177.9 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Environment - current issues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
People and Society:
Nationality:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)
Languages:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Religions:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Roman Catholic 26%, Protestant 25.8% (Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4%), Hindu 22.5%, Muslim 5.8%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)
Population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1,225,225 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Age structure:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0-14 years: 19.5% (male 121,713/female 116,764)
15-24 years: 13.6% (male 86,514/female 80,397)
25-54 years: 47.1% (male 299,207/female 278,043)
55-64 years: 10.7% (male 65,195/female 66,033)
65 years and over: 9.1% (male 48,102/female 63,257) (2013 est.)
population pyramid: "> Dependency ratios:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total dependency ratio: 42.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 29.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.9 %
potential support ratio: 7.8 (2013)
Median age:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 33.9 years
male: 33.4 years
female: 34.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-0.09% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
Birth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
14.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
Death rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Net migration rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-6.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
Urbanization:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
urban population: 14% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) 57,000 (2009)
Sex ratio:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
46 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 113
Infant mortality rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 25.74 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 73
male: 27.08 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total population: 71.96 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 69.09 years
female: 74.91 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.71 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
42.5% (2006)
Health expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
5.7% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 119
Physicians density:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2.1)
Drinking water source:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
improved:
unimproved:
Sanitation facility access:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
improved:
unimproved:
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
15,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
29.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 31
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4.4% (2000)
country comparison to the world: 94
Education expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
NA
Literacy:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.5% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2004)
Child labor - children ages 5-14:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total number: 1,201
percentage: 1 % (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 10.5%
country comparison to the world: 108
male: 8.8%
female: 12.9% (2008)
Government:
Country name:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Government type:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
name: Port of Spain
geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward
regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco
borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin
cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando
ward: Tobago
Independence:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
31 August 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
previous 1962; latest 1976; amended many times, last in 2007 (2012)
Legal system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
International law organization participation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of state: President Anthony CARMONA (since 18 March 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR (since 26 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
election results: as the only candidate nominated, Anthony CARMONA elected president; sworn in on 18 March 2013; percent of electoral college vote - 100%
Legislative branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, 6 by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 24 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - NA; seats by party - UNC 21, PNM 12, COP 6, TOP 2
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2013; seats by party - PNM 12
Judicial branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65
subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court
Political parties and leaders:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Congress of the People or COP [Prakash RAMADHAR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
International organization participation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of mission: Ambassador Neil N. PARSAN (since 14 February 2011)
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Margaret B. DIOP
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905
Flag description:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side; the colors represent the elements of earth, water, and fire; black stands for the wealth of the land and the dedication of the people; white symbolizes the sea surrounding the islands, the purity of the country's aspirations, and equality; red symbolizes the warmth and energy of the sun, the vitality of the land, and the courage and friendliness of its people
National symbol(s):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad); cocrico (bird of Tobago)
National anthem:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"
lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE
note: adopted 1962; the song was originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; it was adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962
Economy:
Economy - overview:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses and has one of the highest growth rates and per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8%, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then and contracted during 2009-2011 due to depressed natural gas prices and changing markets. Growth had been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas, petrochemicals, and steel with additional upstream and downstream investment planned. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources but it also supplies manufactured goods, notably food products and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports, but only 5% of employment. Oil production has declined over the last decade as the country focused the majority of its efforts on natural gas. However, declining reserves, lack of government investment in the sector, and the changing global gas market raises concern for the long-term growth of the country's energy sector. Although Trinidad and Tobago enjoys cheap electricity from natural gas, the renewable energy sector has recently garnered increased interest. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus with the US. The US is Trinidad and Tobago's leading trade partner. The previous MANNING administration benefited from fiscal surpluses fueled by the dynamic export sector; however, declines in oil and gas prices have reduced government revenues, challenging the current government's commitment to maintaining high levels of public investment. Crime and bureaucratic hurdles continue to be the biggest deterrents for attracting more foreign direct investment and business.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$26.35 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$25.4 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$19,800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
20% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
GDP - composition, by end use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
household consumption: 55.5%
government consumption: 16.3%
investment in fixed capital: 14.9%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 92.4%
imports of goods and services: -80.3%
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 57.8%
services: 41.9% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry; sugar
Industries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-0.5% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
Labor force:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
618,200 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
Labor force - by occupation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
agriculture: 3.8%
manufacturing, mining, and quarrying: 12.8%
construction and utilities: 20.4%
services: 62.9% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
5.6% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
Population below poverty line:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
17% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
revenues: $7.654 billion
expenditures: $7.933 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
30.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-1.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
Public debt:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
37.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Fiscal year:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
9.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
Central bank discount rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.7% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Stock of narrow money:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$6.221 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Stock of broad money:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$17.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Stock of domestic credit:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$6.059 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$14.73 billion (31 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 69
Current account balance:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$959 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$12.98 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Exports - commodities:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus fruit, vegetables, flowers
Exports - partners:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
US 42.1%, Chile 7.1%, Argentina 6.5%, Spain 4.5% (2012)
Imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$9.065 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
Imports - commodities:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals
Imports - partners:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
US 33.1%, Brazil 8.1%, Colombia 7.7%, Gabon 5.5%, Canada 4.4%, China 4.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$9.897 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Debt - external:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$4.722 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$102 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$3.829 billion (2007)
country comparison to the world: 66
Exchange rates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -
Energy:
Electricity - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.998 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Electricity - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.586 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Electricity - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
Electricity - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.605 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
99.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Crude oil - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
119,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Crude oil - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
75,340 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Crude oil - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
70,260 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Crude oil - proved reserves:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
728.3 million bbl (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 44
Refined petroleum products - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
132,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
41,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Refined petroleum products - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
106,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Refined petroleum products - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1,598 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
Natural gas - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
40.6 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Natural gas - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
23.32 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Natural gas - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
17.64 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Natural gas - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
375.4 billion cu m (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 36
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
52.07 million Mt (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Communications:
Telephones - main lines in use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
287,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 119
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.884 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 147
Telephone system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
general assessment: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 170 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2011)
Broadcast media:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
5 TV networks, one of which is state-owned, broadcast on multiple stations; multiple cable TV subscription service providers; multiple radio networks, one state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2007)
Internet country code:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
.tt
Internet hosts:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
241,690 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 69
Internet users:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
593,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 115
Transportation:
Airports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 189
Airports - with paved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m:
Pipelines:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
condensate 257 km; condensate/gas 11 km; gas 1,567 km; oil 587 km (2013)
Roadways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 8,320 km
country comparison to the world: 139
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (2001)
Merchant marine:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 4
country comparison to the world: 130
by type: passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 2 (unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
major seaport(s): Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough
oil terminals: Galeota Point terminal
Military:
Military branches:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Trinidad and Tobago citizenship and completion of secondary school required (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
males age 16-49: 341,764
females age 16-49: 317,899 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
males age 16-49: 269,824
females age 16-49: 261,735 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
male: 8,164
female: 7,503 (2010 est.)
Transnational Issues:
Disputes - international:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
Trafficking in persons:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
current situation: Trinidad and Tobago is a destination and transit country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and adults subjected to forced labor; local victims have been trafficked to the US and the UK for sexual exploitation, while women and girls from South America and the Dominican Republic have been subjected to sex trafficking in Trinidad and Tobago's brothels and clubs; some economic migrants from the Caribbean region and Asia have had their passports held and experienced forced labor conditions; children are vulnerable to forced labor, including scavenging trash; the country is a potential transit point for human trafficking to Caribbean and South American destinations
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Trinidad and Tobago does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2013, the government proclaimed its anti-trafficking law and established a counter-trafficking unit, but authorities did not use the law to its full effect; despite victim protections in the new law, the government has failed to properly screen and protect hundreds of potential trafficking victims; the reported complicity of public officials in trafficking offenses is also an obstacle (2013)