Page last updated on October 25, 2013

Introduction:
Background:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Both the US and the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858, but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. Johnston Island and Sand Island were designated wildlife refuges in 1926. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934, and subsequently the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high-altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s and 1960s, and until late in 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage and disposal site for chemical weapons. Cleanup and closure of the weapons facility ended in May 2005.
Geography:
Location:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean 717 nm (1328 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands
Geographic coordinates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
16 45 N, 169 31 W
Map references:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Oceania
Area:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 2.63 sq km
land: 2.63 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 km
Coastline:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
34 km
Maritime claims:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
mostly flat
Elevation extremes:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Summit Peak 5 m
Natural resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
guano deposits (worked until depletion about 1890), terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
Land use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2011)
Irrigated land:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 sq km (2011)
Natural hazards:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
NA
Environment - current issues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
no natural fresh water resources
Geography - note:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public; a former US nuclear weapons test site; site of now-closed Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); most facilities dismantled and cleanup complete in 2004; some low-growing vegetation
Population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
315 uninhabited
note: in previous years, there was an average of 1,100 US military and civilian contractor personnel present; as of September 2001, population had decreased significantly when US Army Chemical Activity Pacific (USACAP) departed; as of May 2005 all US government personnel had left the island (July 2010 est.)
Government:
Country name:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Johnston Atoll
Dependency status:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
unincorporated territory of the US; administered from Honolulu, HI, by Pacific Air Forces, Hickam Air Force Base, and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
Legal system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Flag description:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
the flag of the US is used
Transportation:
Airports - with paved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Ports and terminals:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Johnston Island
Military:
Military - note:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
defense is the responsibility of the US