Page last updated on January 31, 2014

Introduction:
Background:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are a high standard of education, equality promotion, and a national social security system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.
Geography:
Location:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Europe
Area:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 338,145 sq km
country comparison to the world: 65
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km
Area - comparative:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 2,654 km
border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1,250 km
Maritime claims:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
Natural resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
arable land: 6.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.34% (2011)
Irrigated land:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
685.8 sq km (2010)
Total renewable water resources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
110 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 1.63 cu km/yr (25%/72%/3%)
per capita: 308.9 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
NA
Environment - current issues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
People and Society:
Nationality:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
Languages:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Finnish (official) 94.2%, Swedish (official) 5.5%, other (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 0.2% (2012 est.)
Religions:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% (2006)
Population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
5,266,114 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
Age structure:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0-14 years: 15.8% (male 424,571/female 410,042)
15-24 years: 12.3% (male 329,625/female 316,585)
25-54 years: 38.3% (male 1,026,525/female 988,772)
55-64 years: 14.4% (male 374,685/female 385,933)
65 years and over: 19.2% (male 421,854/female 587,522) (2013 est.)
population pyramid: "> Dependency ratios:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total dependency ratio: 55 %
youth dependency ratio: 25.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 29.5 %
potential support ratio: 3.4 (2013)
Median age:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 43 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 44.8 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.06% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Birth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
10.36 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
Death rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Net migration rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
Urbanization:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
HELSINKI (capital) 1.107 million (2009)
Sex ratio:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
27.9 (2005 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 175
Infant mortality rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 3.38 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 213
male: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total population: 79.55 years
country comparison to the world: 41
male: 76.09 years
female: 83.15 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.73 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Health expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
8.9% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 48
Physicians density:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2.74 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
5.9 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
improved:
unimproved:
Sanitation facility access:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
improved:
unimproved:
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2,600 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
23% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 77
Education expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
6.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 24
Literacy:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 18 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 17.7%
country comparison to the world: 70
male: 17.6%
female: 17.9% (2012)
Government:
Country name:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
Government type:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
republic
Capital:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
Independence:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)
Legal system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
civil law system based on the Swedish model; note - the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws
International law organization participation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 22 June 2011)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); the parliament elects a prime minister who is then appointed to office by the president
election results: percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 36.96%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.76%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.53%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMĂ„KI (Vas) 5.48%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.47%; a runoff election between NIINISTO and HAAVISTO was held 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.59%, HAAVISTO 37.41%; Jyrki KATAINEN elected prime minister; election results 118-72
note: government coalition - Kok, SDP, Vihr, SFP, Vas, and KD (2013)
Legislative branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kok 20.4%, SDP 19.1%, TF 19.1%, Kesk 15.8%, Vas 8.1%, Vihr 7.3%, SFP 4.3%, KD 4%, other 1.9%; seats by party - Kok 44, SDP 42, TF 39, Kesk 35, Vas 14, Vihr 10, SFP 9, KD 6, other 1 (the constituency of Aland)
Judicial branch:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
Political parties and leaders:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
International organization participation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of mission: Ambassador Ritva KOUKKU-RONDE (since 1 September 2011)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
chief of mission: Ambassador Bruce J. ORECK (since 12 August 2009)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
Flag description:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter
National symbol(s):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lion
National anthem:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS
note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
Economy:
Economy - overview:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Trade is important with exports accounting for over one third of GDP in recent years. Finland is strongly competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in high-tech exports such as mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in 2009, with Finland experiencing one of the deepest contractions in the euro zone. A recovery of exports, domestic trade, and household consumption stimulated economic growth in 2010-11. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio, turning previously strong budget surpluses into deficits, but Finland has taken action to ensure it will meet EU deficit targets by 2013 and retains its triple-A credit rating. Finland's main challenge in 2013 will be to stimulate growth in the face of weak demand in EU export markets and government austerity measures meant to reduce its budget deficit. Longer-term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$194.1 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$244.3 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-0.8% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$35,800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
19.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
GDP - composition, by end use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
household consumption: 56.4%
government consumption: 25.1%
investment in fixed capital: 19.6%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 40.5%
imports of goods and services: -43.1%
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 25.9%
services: 71.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Industries:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-5.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
Labor force:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2.69 million (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
Labor force - by occupation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
agriculture and forestry: 4.4%
industry: 15.5%
construction: 7.1%
commerce: 21.3%
finance, insurance, and business services: 13.3%
transport and communications: 9.9%
public services: 28.5% (2011)
Unemployment rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
7.8% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Population below poverty line:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24.7% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
26.8 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 127
Budget:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
revenues: $133.4 billion
expenditures: $139.1 billion
note: Central Government Budget (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
54.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
-2.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
Public debt:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
53.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3.2% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Central bank discount rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.5% (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 117
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
2.06% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
Stock of narrow money:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$126.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
Stock of broad money:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$183.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Stock of domestic credit:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$265.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$143.1 billion (31 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 40
Current account balance:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$-3.679 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$76.46 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Exports - commodities:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partners:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Sweden 11.1%, Russia 9.9%, Germany 9.3%, Netherlands 6.3%, US 6.2%, UK 5.1%, China 4.6% (2012)
Imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$72.13 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
Imports - commodities:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Russia 17.7%, Sweden 14.8%, Germany 13.9%, Netherlands 8.1%, China 4.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$11.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
Debt - external:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$599.3 billion (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 22
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$134.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
$186.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Exchange rates:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Energy:
Electricity - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
70.34 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Electricity - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
84.83 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Electricity - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.645 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Electricity - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
19.09 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
16.68 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
52.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
16.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
18.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
12.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Crude oil - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
13,530 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Crude oil - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Crude oil - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
214,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
Crude oil - proved reserves:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 bbl (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 129
Refined petroleum products - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
282,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
204,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Refined petroleum products - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
144,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Refined petroleum products - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
113,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Natural gas - production:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
Natural gas - consumption:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4.7 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Natural gas - exports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
Natural gas - imports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
3.661 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
0 cu m (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 136
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
54.06 million Mt (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Communications:
Telephones - main lines in use:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
890,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 79
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
9.32 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 83
Telephone system:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2011)
Broadcast media:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; the 2 publicly owned TV stations recently expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals have been broadcast digitally since September 2007; analog broadcasts via cable networks were terminated in February 2008; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters (2008)
Internet country code:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax
Internet hosts:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4.763 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 22
Internet users:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
4.393 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 55
Transportation:
Airports:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
148 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 39
Airports - with paved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 74
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 74
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m:
Pipelines:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
gas 1,689 km (2010)
Railways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 5,944 km
country comparison to the world: 31
broad gauge: 5,944 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2013)
Roadways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 78,000 km
country comparison to the world: 61
paved: 50,000 km (includes 700 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,000 km
note: there 78,000 km of highways, 350,000 km of private and forest roads, and 26,000 km of urban roads giving Finland a total road network of 450,000 km (2012)
Waterways:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport is used frequently in the summer and is widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finand also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
country comparison to the world: 18
Merchant marine:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
total: 97
country comparison to the world: 51
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3
foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)
registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
Military:
Military branches:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
males age 16-49: 1,155,368
females age 16-49: 1,106,193 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
males age 16-49: 955,151
females age 16-49: 912,983 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
male: 32,599
female: 31,416 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
1.47% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 195
Transnational Issues:
Disputes - international:
Field Background: For all countries in alphabetical order
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands